(almost) zero allowed on a hundred | bpb
Within the socialist values of East German society were evaluated in self-employment and entrepreneurship, mostly negative. Both were regarded as a rather unwanted Remnants of capitalist society, which has, in a workers and peasants ‘ state has no place. However, one must distinguish between appearance and reality, between the pure socialist ideology and the concrete policy towards the private sector in the “real existing socialism” of the GDR.
After the founding of the GDR, the suppression of the self-employment was driven initially particularly strong in agriculture. This took the Form of forced collective of. So 71.6% of all persons employed in agriculture were in the year 1955, nor in the private sector, while this share amounted in the year 1960, only about 4 percent. In the industrial sector, the socialist government was initially more moderate. However, many entrepreneurs left in the 1950s and 1960s, the GDR, since its room for manoeuvre has been restricted in the course of time is becoming stronger. In 1972, the complete expropriation of the private industry was finally completed. Since the great expropriation-wave to the beginning of the 1970s, self-employment was allowed only in a few economic areas. It was only in the crafts and in retail trade self-employed to any significant extent. However, farms in these areas were subjected to a strict control by the state. So they were not allowed to employ, for example, more than ten people, and the state tried to limit the profits of private companies. The production of goods was operated increasingly in large state. These so-called combines, were obliged by a government-controlled Central planning Committee to produce according to certain specifications. In the year 1989, in the GDR only 185.000 self-employed, which is a ratio of about 1.8 percent based on the working age population (persons between 15 and under 65 years of age) corresponded. In the Wake of German reunification in 1990, it arrived in East Germany to a fundamental Transformation from a Central planned economy to a social market economy in West Germany since 40 years had passed. This economic upheaval was associated with a enormous start-up boom. In 1990 alone, approximately 60,000 new companies were founded, of which about 60 per cent of this green of these companies were founded on the service and tourism sector.
The start-up boom in eastern germany during the first years of the transformation process had a number of reasons:
- firstly, by the far-reaching suppression of self-employment under the East German Regime, a need to catch up on births accumulated.
- Secondly, wrapping a strong growth in demand for manufacturing and service goods were in East Germany immediately after the System has relatively few East German provider.
- Thirdly, increased unemployment in East Germany is strong, so that a lack of occupational Alternatives in the decision for self-employment is often a leading motive (“necessity entrepreneurship”). Thus, the number of employees in Eastern Germany between 1989 and 1993, fell from 9.8 to 6.2 million. The average unemployment rate was in 1993, about 15 percent.
Information about the catching-up process in terms of self-employment, the data of the working group “employment accounts of the Federation and the countries” , which make from different statistical sources, the number of working and of workers identified in the different regions. are The difference between workers and employees, the number of self-employed is obtained.
In east germany the self-employment rate (the share of the professionally self-employed in relation to the sum of the employed and unemployed)  in 1991, an average of 4.2 percent, well below the corresponding value for the old länder (7.3 percent).
Due to the interplay of “Push” (unemployment) and “Pull”factors (pent-up demand for services) increased the rate of selfemployment in East Germany to 8.6 percent in the year 2005 enormous. Thus, the level of self – employment in East Germany is similar to that of the old länder of Germany (8.9 percent) (see figure “development of the share of self-employed in East and West Germany corresponded to”). However, the rate of self-employment shows considerable regional differences (see the map “share of self-employed in the labour force (employed + unemployed) in the German länder in the year 2005”). In particular, in Brandenburg and Berlin, Saxony and Thuringia, the self-employment had reached in 2005 the level of many of the West German länder or exceeded. In contrast, the self-employment rate fell at the same time in the predominantly rural state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and in Saxony-stopping is still relatively low.
A differentiation of the self-employment according to the sectors of the economy, services and manufacturing shows that the self-employed rate in respect of all workers and the unemployed in West Germany stood at 7.4 percent in the service sector and 1.5 percent in the manufacturing sector. In Eastern Germany the corresponding independently rate was in the services sector, 6.3 per cent, and in manufacturing, 2.3 per cent commercial. The manufacturing sector also includes the construction sector. This is ignored, then a rate of 0.7 per cent and the new länder, for the old länder in a ratio of 0.9 per cent relative to all employed and unemployed persons.
- read Among the main statistical sources, in particular, the statistics of the Federal employment Agency on employees subject to social security and marginal employment, also the monthly, quarterly and annual statistics for individual sectors of the economy, and the details of the staff stand statistics about the personnel in the public service, the results of the microcensus, as well as other messages of individual institutions (e.g. monthly reports of the Federal Ministry for defence about the number of soldiers). The calculation results are checked for consistency with the other results of the labour market statistical reporting and National accounts.
- do not include The professionally self-Employed, self-employed persons in agriculture and forestry.
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Germany, year zero | bpb
Italy, Germany, 1948
Release: in 1952 (germany)
the rental: Deutsche Kinemathek
the Director: Roberto Rossellini
the screenplay: Roberto Rossellini, Carlo Lizzani, Max Kolpé, Sergio Amidei
the performers: Edmund Moeschke, Ernst Pittschau, Ingetraud Hinze, Franz-Otto Krüger, Erich Gühne, Hans Sanger, inter alia,
the camera: Robert Juillard
the runtime: 78 Min.
the Format: 35mm, black and white
the prices: International film festival of Locarno in 1948: Best Film (Roberto Rossellini), award for best original screenplay (Roberto Rossellini, Carlo Lizzani, Max Kolpé)
the FSK: 16 J.
the age recommendation: 16 J.
the grades: 11. Class
the themes: Childhood/children, (German) history, Nazism, war/war, society, film history
the subjects: English, history, Social/Society, ethics, Religion,
Berlin, shortly after the end of the war. In a confined space, the family of the 12-year-old Edmund’ with other tenants living in a severely damaged house. The boy’s mother is dead, the heart sick father tied to the bed. As the brother leaves as blended, the apartment of a soldier and the older sister only a few cigarettes of your evening bar looking for house, attributed to shoulder the care of the family on Edmunds. On one of his forays, he meets a former teacher who is suspended as a national socialist from the school and from the black-and-trade lives. Edmund reported to him by his father, to which the man replied, the Weak and the Sick must die so the Strong could. As Edmund kills his father with poison, denies the teacher is outraged to have him come. In despair over his act, rushes the Boy to death.
Germany year zero is one of the most important films of the italian neorealism of the 1940s. like many of his comrades-in-arms turned from roberto rossellini with amateur actors in original locations, to the common eskapist entertainment oppose a cinema, which, given the war-induced misery of the reality of life of the little people required saw. so germany year zero the material poverty and moral squalor of the germans after the end of the war in extraordinary ruthlessness – which is why the film met with in this country, first of all, a broad refusal. the scene of the destroyed berlin, captured in the endurance of camera movements, gives the action a haunting documentary effect. the awkward acting of the performers reinforced this reality binding and acts at the same time, in the brechtian sense, dissociative, whereby a reflection is stimulated.
Rossellini’s film is less than the settlement with the ns-understand regime. the mere fact that a child is at the centre, reveals that the perspective is more on the present and the future – on the question of whether there was in germany a new start from zero, and whether and how the fascism in the people continues. in this respect, germany year zero not only as a “document”, as a close-to-reality representation of the post-war everyday, in the classroom involved, but also as a stimulus to discuss the individually-psychological impact of totalitarian systems on the example of german national socialism. in addition, the film is suitable as a starting point to deal with the italian neo-realism.
The information and materials
bpb.de: Dossier film Canon: Germany year Zero
media culture.online: Germany year Zero
More on this topic kinofenster.de:
Lore (film review by 05.10.2012)
After that, it would have to be beautiful (film review by 01.11.2001)
Stolberg-donnerberg: a district starts from zero to one hundred
And not only the present, neighbors, business people and association representatives wondered whether the work of the initiators. great recognition for professionally designed flyer, with which the ig for the first meeting on thursday evening had promoted, harvested the donnersberger also from cities region of upper counselor ruth roelen. “when i saw the invitation to the meeting, i was really floored,” praised the efforts made to date and the great resonance in the parish hall: “you start here already from zero to one hundred. this looks really rare.“
Points to the donnersberger in the over 50 – year-old village-and district competition with a new website, want to. under www.stolberg-donnerberg.de — a first draft has already been submitted online to connect the neighborhood better in the future and about events and activities around the stations and to be kept updated. also in this case, the organization team of the ig-chairman, hans-josef schneider has already done all the work and meticulous excel lists with contact details of the association and business world, schools and nurseries, as well as a full year overview of events compiled. using the donnersberger this is now to be completed and presented on the internet.
The core of competition, to come into conversation with each other, and to create more values for the community of the place, have you made exactly showed ruth roelen after the event impressed. and also your employee, peter wacker’s not amazed: “with such a website you will not last.”
Of course, life on the thunder mountain should not be outsourced in the future, completely on the internet. “a place that lives from its community,” said ruth roelen during your lecture. and, as such, want to present the donnersberger also in september, when the jury of the competition at their district for two hours under the magnifying glass. where are our strengths and weaknesses? we want to give us a mission statement for the thunder mountain? how do we deal with new citizens or people who are no longer mobile? how can the infrastructure in place to improve? these and many other questions will the ig on thursday, 13. march, 19 at, discuss in as much of the round in the parish hall to continue.
Düren/jülich: the zero hour: memories of the bomb attack 70 years ago
“we have thrown ourselves on the ground and prayed.”
Rudi schlusche, of jülich, as the 83-year-old with the devastating bombing of the 16th century. november 1944 saw in düren, germany, had been thrown by the pressure wave of a first detonation in a slit-trench and remembered a noise that sounded like a lanz bulldog. the face on the ground drove pressed but no tractor past him. around him, hundreds of bombs fell. “then suddenly it was quiet. but it was not over yet for a long time. then the wave of fire bombs came.“